It is a form of melanoma, which is characterized by its place of origin: sole, palm or under the nail (subungual melanoma). It is common on the feet than in the hands. It seems de novo in the skin of normal appearance, or it can be developed within the existing melanocytic nevi (moles) range.
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Acral Lentiginous melanoma
Acral Lentiginous melanoma begins to expanding slowly as a flat patch of discolored skin. Initially remaining cancer cells in the tissue of origin, the epidermis. It is the stage of melanoma in situ, which can last for months or years.
Acral lentiginous melanoma
Acral lentiginous melanoma is invasive when melanoma cells penetrate through the bottom membrane of the epidermis and malignant cells into the dermis. The rapid growth of nodular melanoma can also occur in acral lentiginous melanoma and grow deeper into the skin.
Who gets acral lentiginous melanoma?
Compared to other types of melanoma the acral lentiginous melanoma is relatively rare. Skin (light skin) color does not have any relationship (phototype) and occurs at the same speeds in white, brown or black. acral lentiginous melanoma makes 29-72% of melanomas in people with dark skin, but less than 1% of melanomas in people with fair skin, because they are the most common solar melanoma these types induced superficial spreading lentigo maligna melanoma and melanoma.
Acral Lentiginous melanoma is equally common in men and women. Most occur in people over the 40 age.
The causes of acral lentiginous melanoma are still unknown. It is unrelated to sun exposure.
Acral Lentiginous melanoma in the palm, soles or fingers and toes begins began to expand as a patch of skin discoloration. People generally believe that first and foremost a stain. It will be a non-pigmented (non-pigmented, usually in red). Like other forms of malignant melanoma is flat, which can be identified by the ABCDE rule: Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variations, large diameter and evolve.
Acral lentiginous melanoma include:
Size: At diagnosis it is > 6 mm, usually more than a few centimeters in diameter Variable pigmentation: usually a mix of brown and gray-blue colors, black and red The surface is smooth at first later became thick and irregular surfaces, that can be dry or wet Bleeding or ulcers
Acral lentiginous melanoma if occurs in the area of the nail, it is called melanoma of the nail. When it starts in the matrix (nail growth area), it is known as subungual melanoma. It can be a change in the diffuse color pigmented or irregular longitudinal band (s) have on the nail surface. Advanced melanoma completely destroyed the nail surface. It may be amelanotic.
Causes of acral lentiginous melanoma
The development of acral lentiginous melanoma is on pigment cells (malignant melanocytes) along the basic layer of the skin. These cells can be from an existing or most skin naevus before normal skin. What causes the melanocytes evolve into malignant is still unknown, but there are genetic mutations.
What tests should I do?
Dermoscopy are trained by a dermatologist or another doctor in their application, can contribute to distinguishing it from other lentiginous acral melanoma skin lesions that will be very useful, in particular:
- Melanocytic nevi (moles) viral warts Bleeding or hematoma Subungual
- The dermoscopic features were observed more frequently for Acral lentiginous melanoma are
- The structure and the asymmetric colors Pigment distribution enhanced parallel pattern Red-gray forms
If the suspicious skin lesions of acral lentiginous melanoma, is the best cut (excisional biopsy). Slightly biopsy is best avoided, except in very big damage. An incisional biopsy or shock may miss the focus of a pre-existing mole generated melanoma. But sometimes the injury is very large, and before major surgery, a biopsy is ready to prove the diagnosis. A biopsy of a suspicious lesion an acral lentiginous melanoma should take a long ellipse of skin, or it should have several biopsies from multiple locations, a site could be taken to lose a bad approach.